Power Loom Weebly
It is a result of wonderful team-work. Cost efficiency dictated the ratio of steam engines to looms at 1:10 minimum. So for this task, we’re just going to look at two major areas of transformation: textiles and transportation. The spinning mule - In 1779, Samuel Crompton combined features of the spinning jenny and the water frame to produce the spinning mule. The first power looms were installed in a factory in Manchester, where they suffered a similar fate to the first spinning jennies. Then I stand in front of a power loom for ten to twelve hours a day, where I run the fabric back to the weaver. They're fun to make and in style. New board of directors - 4th January 1978 (Left to Right) Rex Wheater, Anne Sargent, Bill Everard, Mike Kerry, Cyril Sharman, & Tony Archer. Everything was produced at home be individual craftsmen. STEAM POWER Powered by gasoline, diesel, or kerosene. The power loom was a machine that sped up the cloth-making process. Weaving thread and linen had been a major source of money for the farmers in northern Germany. Steam powered transportation John Stevens Cast-Iron Piano Frame Alpheus Babcock Spinning Machine Samuel Slater Clock Eli Terry Inventions by decade patented: 1830 - 1839 Screw Propeller John Ericsson Mechanical Reaper Cyrus Hall McCormick Power loom Erastus Bigelow Process for making malleable iron Seth Boyden Revolver with Interchangeable. The Spinning Mule The spinning mule used water power to spin the thread, which was much faster than doing it by hand. Find PowerPoint Presentations and Slides using the power of XPowerPoint. Home Gallery Tutorials 'Tis the gift to be simple 'Tis the gift to be free Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Working at the factory is very loud! I can barely hear myself think because of all the machines! Even the cotton from the loom swirls in the air, and when I get home, my clothes are covered in fuzz and my throat is hoarse!. Steamboat, Steam powered transportation, Cast-iron Piano Frame, Spinning Machine, Clock - 1830-1839: Screw Propeller, Mechanical Reaper, Power loom, Revolver with Interchangeable parts, First Steam locomotive built in America, Process for making malleable iron 1840-1859: Vulcanization of rubber, telegraph, Bessemer process, sewing. Kingdom of Prussia 20. The word gin is from the word "engine. A modern version can be seen in the video below. Natural Resources a) Rise of manufacturing in the early 1900's (i) In the decades following the Civil War, the United States emerged as an industrial giant. It was a key part in many different inventions and was the device that would make working much quicker and easier. Babbage’s Analytical Engine An English man Charles Babbage built a mechanical machine to. English, Marianne, and Jonathan Atteberry. The base cloth used is either cotton khadi or power loom fabric and is also dyed locally, thus working in harmony with the local small scale industry. The best and brightest way to start a fashion trend! On this website, you will find how to make some of my personal favorite Rainbow Loom bracelets!. There are several tools for placing beads on the virtual loom. 12,000 troops had to be sent into the worst affected areas to deal with the Luddites. There are 13 colours that are mostly used in Lambani embroidery, out of which; red and blue are most common. On historic utilitarian looms she creates contemporary works of art. Fire and Loom started with just two of us over some craft cocktails in the dim recesses of a Chicago speakeasy. Class struggle = group out of power (property-less proletariat) vs. This class introduces the loom to students, teaches how to direct warp it and then give them some time to weave a little themselves. The factory system brought many workers and machines together under one roof. Power loom The first power loom, a mechanized loom powered by a drive shaft, was designed in 1784 by Edmund Cartwright and first built in 1785. used water power to run spinning machines that made yarn. org) when completed. Effects of Iron and Coal: Britain. The Era in the 1700s, in Great Britain, where there was a shift from muscle power to machine power (home production to factory production). The Officers of #189 LOOM & WOTM Chapter #2145 Welcome to the Dedham, Mass. Invented by Edmund Cartright in 1797. When Lowell was leaving England, British officers searched his luggage twice never to think that he had solely memorized the design of the power loom itself. This Web site is an initiative of the Stockton Moose Lodge 391, and is not sanctioned by the Loyal Order of Moose, Moose International or any subsidiary thereof. Santa Monica City TV Channel 16's "Santa Monica Update" and Los Angeles County's "Metro Motion. On historic utilitarian looms she creates contemporary works of art. Inventions of the Industrial Revolution: Web Quest Instructions Go to www. By 1791, a waterwheel drove the machinery that carded and spun cotton into thread. Since 1998, Victoria has been known professionally as Sandy Creek Weavers. Unable to feed their families, workers became. Seth Boyden. His invention was perfected over a ten year period by William Horrocks. They're the perfect present to give to your friends and family. Cast-Iron Piano Frame. Very little is known about Thomas' early life, until 1795, when Thomas joins the army. The Royal Gorge Dinosaur Experience is perched atop the Royal Gorge plateau. The power loom was a machine that sped up the cloth-making process. Rainbow Loom Bracelet connected to a ring. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Week 16 & 17 - Weaving on a Loom January 4-8 January 11-15 Standards: Learning Goals: Students will learn the basic terminology and stitches involved in weaving on a loom. The industrial revolution was a part of industrialization and it soon evolved into transnational corporations. Collier – miner working at the pit face. nation-state 19. Texture was then added. I am really thankful of Venerated Mr. Seth Boyden. increase in population. Question 1 - K & L. Power Loom = faster loom that allowed weavers to keep up with the amount of thread used. Just click on the "studio" tab above. The First Industrial Revolution played a very important role on our timeline of inventions and it helped us gain a better understanding of what us humans have created over the years. enter the power loom, a job that cut her hands. Samuel Slater sneaked out of the country. These new machines were too large to use at home. Urbanization. Introduced steam powered ships & railroads. Technology Transforms Western Agriculture Francis Lowell improved the English power loom for American factories The West also profited from new inventions at this time, making farms a little more like factories and farmers a lot more like businessmen. The competition between sell- ers keeps the cost of production low and the. Everything happened at a glacial pace. Yellow fever kills many French soldiers. History has always been one of my favorite subjects. The entry is him talking about all the things that lead up to his invention and how he thought of it. Thomas Malthus / Essay on the Principle of Population. In 1787, Edmund Cartwright developed the power loom. He opened a small mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Hi, my name is Travis Kyker. invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785. Harker 1 Kieran Corcoran Harker Taiz/Bell Humanities 6/7 26 November 2012 A Snip of the Life of Edmund Cartwright The year was 1784 and Cartwright was on holiday to Matlock, England which wasn't far. They had to be powered by the great waterwheels that ran mills. How did industrialization begin in America? What European impact was seen. By putting out cheaper cotton, Lowell's company quickly became successful. RAINBOW LOOM XTREME: New Products! 2/25/2017 0 Comments Hello Everyone! After a 4 year hiatus, The Xtreme Looming Team has decided to keep up with popular trends and. Down below I list all the stuff you can buy at the Rainbow Loom webstore. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the late 1700s, manufacturing was often done in people's innovation in textiles, the power loom, which. Greenewalt for adding the soundtrack and uploading the video. According to statistics from (Bellis "Cotton")), in the year before the cotton gin, 1792, America exported 140,000 pounds of cotton. Chapter 16 World War Looms Last modified by:. 1st practical method of creating electricity. Both the power loom and the dressing frame required large. Throughout 1812 there were attacks on Lancashire cotton mills. The Great Exposition Water frame Combination Acts Essays: Why was Great Britain able to start the Industrial Revolution and then sustain their advantage? Analyze how the Industrial Revolution affected the industrialists, the government, and the workers. as the spinning jenny and the power loom made it possible for unskilled workers to make cloth. It shows me making a length of hand towel fabric with the fly shuttle on my AVL loom in my home. The steam engine gave people a way to harness energy. Most factories were built near a source of water to power the machines. Had some tree trimming done last week, but decided to leave these two trunks in place for another outdoor weaving project. i don't have any contact. Thurston art is being displayed in the lobby at the Ann Arbor Hands On Museum 220 E. Children were expected to help support their family. Sadly Ron Roberts died on his way home one Friday. The Power Loom. rainbow loom bracelets dog biscuits Backpack tags Save-the-Dates for Project SEEK 2016! Save the Dates!! June 16th - July 1st, 2016 Proudly powered by Weebly. The steam powered engine is the heart of the steam locomotive. See more ideas about Dropped ceiling, Solid wood dining chairs and Country bathroom vanities. Выложил: Old50. Inventions Spur Industrialization textile industry clothed the world in wool, linen, and cotton. What were some developments in the iron industry that influenced the Industrial Revolution? Using a coke-fueled furnace was a cheaper and easier way to produce cast iron. Like most of their Emsdorf Street neighbours, the whole family were linen hand loom weavers. Steam Engine. Current Events June ~ 2016 LOOM General Meeting ~ Third Tuesday of each month @ 7:00 pm Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Power loom is a type of loom which is operated by power and the other side auto loom has so many automatic function,sensor and thus output of auto looms are more finer than Power loom. if you would like to purchase a loom please contact me and give the information on what you want and you will get your purchase in any way that is easy for you. 20 July 2016. Narasimhan Managing Director Sketch India Ltd. Beginning at Waltham, Massachusetts, where the Charles River provided the necessary waterpower, they revolutionized textile production between 1813 and 1850. Here is the review for Unit 2. Maiden wrote the Forward to the book, which comprises a lifetime of writing by Maguire, who is now in her Nineties and participated in many workshops conducted by Maiden. Peasants try to weaken lord’s power. Maggy's website. The factory system brought many workers and machines together under one roof. INVENTION ADVERTISEMENT RUBRIC. Edmund Cartwright developed the power loom, shown below in this artwork from c. The development of the power loom in 1884 brought significant improvements and variations to cotton fabrics. View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Textile Weaving Machines PPT. From Look and Learn no. His father was the founder of Toyoda Loom Works, Sakichi Toyoda, who is often referred to as the father of the Japanese industrial revolution. This is our new home on the internet. Projects!. The power loom is a water-powered device that automacally and quickly wove thread into cloth. Soon, spinning mills and weaving mills were built along England's waterways. Cotton mills and Surat Zari craft is popular among women all over the world. The Han Dynasty was a world power at the time with much interest in literature, arts, culture and technology with achieving successes. Geography Study the map. Wove thread into cloth. Subscribe to Thinglink Content. There are 13 colours that are mostly used in Lambani embroidery, out of which; red and blue are most common. 277279 59A 2. Cartwright created the — a mechanized wag of making cloth. Dawn of the Industrial Age Causes of the Industrial Revolution Industrial revolution, Why is it called a revolution? Factors for success Exploration and Colonialism Sea Power Political Stability Government Support Private Investment A Portrait of Life in 1750 Most people were peasant farmers who worked the land with hand tools. invented the Cotton gin ____ 9. So, with a complete rebuild you might as well place the wiring loom. The Kolkata tram is currently the only tram system in the country and provides an emission-free means of transport in Kolkata while the other tram systems in India were phased out. One of the four Dravidian states of India, it has had more than 4,0. He patented the first power loom—an improved version of the handloom—in 1785 and set up a factory in Doncaster, England, to manufacture textiles. Farm women had long supplemented the family income by weaving woolen. Explain what they did and how did they affect peoples lives. This source cites a journal written by William Radcliffe, who was the inventor of the Power Loom which I found very interesting. Cloth merchants boosted their profits by speeding up the process by which spinners and weavers made cloth. A result of industrialization was poor working conditions for those who worked in the factories. Ira Kerst is on Facebook. Geography Study the map. Electricity became the primary source of power for factories, farms, and homes. At the time Hargreaves devised the machine, he was a poor, uneducated spinner and weaver living at Stanhill, near Blackburn, Lancashire. Power looms In 1786, the steam engine enables rapid automated looms to be put in place. The Subjection of Women 18. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. They're also super crafty and pretty. The development of the power loom in 1884 brought significant improvements and variations to cotton fabrics. Plots for Power loom industries at Industrial area Naya Gaon, Pali MAPS OF NAYA GAON, PALI Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The company was sold to the Jones Stroud Group in 1976. Steamships- ships powered with steam could move faster and reliably without wind. The Industrial Revolution Begins - DBQ *This task is based on the accompanying documents. Typically the men outnumbered the women 9 to 1. Watt's modification of the steam engine led to other developments of the Industrial Revolution, including the first steam-powered locomotives and boats. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable. Mother country absorbing colonies for raw goods and power. power, Edmund Cartwright’s power loom sped up weaving after its invention in 1787. AP European History/Besler. power loom revolutionized the weaving industry. Edmund Cartwright’s power loom. James Watt’s steam engine. The Course The key to opening the future for a learner is to learn world languages in the 21st century (Jacobs, 2013). I will add some yarn and warp to get started. The hand-powered spinning jenny, patented by James Hargreaves in 1770, is a multiple-spindle machine for spinning wool or cotton. The first phase of the Industrial Revolution(s) is, in some ways, primarily a transition to factory production and the development of the necessary infrastructure to make moving goods to market easier. The Power Loom. Napoleon sends in the military to take back control of the island. Once back in America, Lowell recruited the help of Nathan Appleton. several Maharashtra tenders are suggested both from public as well private sectors at regular intervals and applicant entrepreneurs can. , SIPCOT Indl. The water frame, the spinning mule, and the power loom were bulky and expen-sive machines. Prior to beginning the weebly/Document Based Question (DBQ) activity students will brainstorm and discuss the meaning of the following terms: utopia, utopian society and utopian industrial society. The factory system brought many workers and machines together under one roof. Watch Queue Queue. Alessandro Volta. Machine-made rugs can be made instantly and manufactured with wool and synthetic fibres such as polypropylene, nylon, polyester, acrylic, and art silk materials. Week 16 & 17 - Weaving on a Loom January 4-8 January 11-15 Standards: Learning Goals: Students will learn the basic terminology and stitches involved in weaving on a loom. Check out my 'Courses' pages for details of exactly what these workshops will include. This video is unavailable. Around the outside of the hole, there must be an ODD amount of small holes poked through to create the loom. Dictators Threaten World Peace 16. Lowell copied successful designs of power looms that had been in use in England and invented an improved version of the power loom. The Loom: The Han Dynasty is also responsible for creating the loom. All visitors are requested to view our product detail pages linked below. Gradually, products evolved from being manufactured one by one to being mass produced. Morse Inventor of the telegraph. About project News & Events Asia Europe Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. It takes skill, time, dedication and creativity to make your own bracelets, figures, charms using the Loom boards. invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785. Because these new machines ran on water-power, most mills were built near rivers. 80 threads at 1 time Water Frame Richard Arkwright Spinning machine running on waterpower Spinning Mule Samuel Crompton Produced stronger thread Power Loom Edmund Cartwright Faster weaving running on water or steam power Cotton Gin Eli Whitney Cleaned Cotton 50X faster Industrial Developments and Other Inventions. Once the spinning jenny and the power loom were invented, cloth could be made in factories at a much greater speed. Introduced steam powered ships & railroads. Machines and technology, such as the spinning jenny, the water frame, and the power loom, were important factors of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution Section 1 2. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. - the loom for men, and the cards and hand-wheel for women and boys. Welcome to Super Star Engineering Works, specialist in making of Jute industry machinery. vmax set of 4 indicators front & rear smoke lenses amber bulbs, price includes free UK mainland shipping if you pay by debit or credit card, please call 075050 15613. Maybe someday. this is a traditional indian thing used by people to decorate their houses people decorate their houses occasionally with these hangings on festivals or sometimes when they have celebrations such as weddingsthey are made of different materials such as wood,cotton puffs,leaves,flowers,beads,bells etc. Adorable, rosie cheeked cream Sheep weaving loom heddle hook. I  n this world you will find how to make all sorts of things like cute bracelets, fancy rings, beautiful necklaces and even miniature things All of the designs will be thought up by me. 21 Section 1 Notes 1. It takes skill, time, dedication and creativity to make your own bracelets, figures, charms using the Loom boards. 2 They were also very socially aware forward-looking magistrates having refused the assistance of troops during the Plug Plot demonstrations. The ideas of mass production, division of labor, the assembly line, & interchangeable parts were all because of which time period?Industrial Revolution 15. She boasted about being a better weaver than even the goddess Athena herself, who was the goddess of skill. Just click on the "studio" tab above. You are allowed to bring a 3x5 notecard or quarter sheet of hand-written notes to the test. Get Started. Phone: 423-499-6445 Contact us @[email protected] Used water power to weave cloth. Watt’s steam engine gave the factories a way to power their new machines. Textiles: Boston spinning jenny and the power loom textile industry boomed Spinning Wheel (hand-spun) Spinning Jenny The Power Loom The power loom used water power to spin the thread More cloth made A cotton factory Agriculture seed drill allowed farmers to plant more seeds at faster rates reaper allowed farmers to harvest their crops more. Supplementary Warp Weaving on the Backstrap Loom This tutorial assumes that you know how to set up for backstrap weaving, including winding a warp and making string heddles. "In [Winslow Homer's] illustration the girl is winding shuttle bobbins, a boxful of which appears in the lower left-hand corner. Afterwards, clothes were made by machines in factories. rather than wood, to power the steam engine! •But getting it was inefficient with the old steam engine! –Then, James Watt 1769!!! •Henry ort’s Puddling Furnace allowed for the use of coke (a more refined version of coal) to smelt pig iron –This created a much stronger, durable, and flexible iron product!. These power looms transformed the textile industry and provided new job opportunities for young women. Adorable, rosie cheeked cream Sheep weaving loom heddle hook. The power loom was a steam-powered loom that mechanized the process, reducing the need for humans to oversee the weaving process. The later mills had gas lighting using gas produced on site. See more ideas about Dropped ceiling, Solid wood dining chairs and Country bathroom vanities. Industrial revolution steam engine effects moreover industrial revolution working conditions cotton gin james watt steam engine water frame industrial revolution cotton gin industrial revolution industrial revolution inventions industrial revolution james watt steam engine industrial revolution steam engine drawing spinning jenny industrial revolution flying shuttle industrial revolution. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use. water-powered frame, met the challenge and pro. The only draw back for these mills was that they had to be located on the water. Please use our contact page to call on us to see what we can do for your pride and joy!. Invented by Edmund Cartright in 1797. Home About Newton Rigg 2019. Cotton Gin 12. Christmas mantel ideas, christmas garland ideas, Christmas kitchen, Christmas decor ideas, Christmas inspiration, Christmas table, Christmas tree ideas, Christmas styling ideas, Holiday decor, festive home. It began in Great Britain in the mid-1700s. The Han Dynasty was a world power at the time with much interest in literature, arts, culture and technology with achieving successes. (Please see the links below to learn more about Wampum. Power produced many dressage and hunters. Maiden wrote the Forward to the book, which comprises a lifetime of writing by Maguire, who is now in her Nineties and participated in many workshops conducted by Maiden. I will share my ideas , tips and help you learn to make fun designs on your rainbow loom. Users place colored circles in columns (the Y-axis) and rows (the X-axis). Power loom took the raw cotton produced by Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin and threaded it together to create cloth. Richard Trevikhick's steam powered train (1804) George Stephenson's Rocket train (1829). Anime or Japanese animated production is a very good source of ideas for loom bracelet designs. Coke and Iron. The power loom improved the speed and quality of weaving cloth. Most among the Power loom units are concentrated in semi urban, or province. Rainbow Loom Bracelet connected to a ring. Female Workers in Japanese Silk Factories: Did the Costs Outweigh the Benefits? The Industrial Revolution had a quiet beginning but by the mid- the movement from farm to factory was producing an all-out ruckus — steam engines belching, gears grinding, conveyor belts slapping. This meant that people were not working at home Instead they worked in factories. Get Started. Aside from all of that, “When the power loom went on, it was very noisy and the whole building use to shake. Explain what they did and how did they affect peoples lives. Please take a moment to enjoy the video of weaving action. It has only been used a couple times and is in excellent condition. A Discovery Company, n. To protect useful and important inventions, Congress passed the patent law. Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, labor]. In the 1790s, Samuel Slater used British industrial designs to build the first American textile factories In the early 1800s. Increase efficiency and increase profits. protective tariff. As a young man he studied medicine with Dr. Edmund Cartwright. Get Started. During Bismarck’s time in power he tries to increase nationalistic power in German states and Prussia to unite Germany. Rainbow loom is also one of my hobbys its basically just little rubber bands with assorted colors that you can make bracelets out of :) and lastly lps aka littlest pet shop are cute adorable pets that i enjoy playing with. The first major line laid in 1830. Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the late 1700s, manufacturing was often done in people's innovation in textiles, the power loom, which. 9) Liberalism. :) In my weebly I will tell you more about the Bead Loom and how to create one. There are, as of right now, 55 different varieties of Rainbow Loom bands 3. Projects!. Release the top loops first, and then the bottom. You must then pressurize the steam. Join Facebook to connect with Ira Kerst and others you may know. Without all the new inventions of this era, many of the basic goods and services we use today wouldn't exist. Inventors and Inventions During the Industrial Revolution, inventors and engineers attempted to improve technology to make it easier to relay information, transport goods, farm more efficiently, spin cotton quicker, etc. The difference between a loom and a power loom is that the power loom is electrical. The majority of businesses in the United States by 1832 were in the textile industry. Flying Shuttle 10. While the Great Barrier Reef stands as a beautiful structure of nature, in recent years there have emerged numerous threats to the existence of the reef that loom and make its future fairly uncertain. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The FIRST company-sponsored housing provided for employees. Fitting the loom was fairly straight forward and quite easy when the dash was removed. About project News & Events Asia Europe Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Limited government that protects the civil liberties of the people. invented the power loom ____ 10. U•X•L Encyclopedia of U. In the early years of the Industrial Revolution, factories were located near rivers and streams to use the water power to. M/S SUPER STAR ENGINEERING WORKS was established by Sri Arun Kumar Neogie in 1984 at 52, Ferry Ghat Street, Telinipara, Hooghly, (W. Inventions of the Industrial Revolution: Web Quest Instructions Go to www. Within two decades steam moved the power loom, and by the 1820s hand weavers were nearly obsolete. As stated in his memoir, Appleton "promised his co-operation. The Industrial Revolution became one of the major forces for change, leading Western civilization into the industrial. Adobe Photo. 25 Silk throwing and Silk weaving- hand loom and power loom 2 h. Students will also rephrase the essential question: Was Lowell a utopian industrial society? In order to enhance their understanding. Cotton Gin 12. smaller and provided more power Henry Ford brought new strength to industry by perfecting factory process mass production - making a large number of something assembly line - highly specialized conveyor for production interchangeable parts - all cars will be the same easily constructed and repaired Model T Ford - AKA “Tin Lizzie”. AP European History. Wright military flyer of 1909, airplane built by Wilbur and Orville Wright and sold to the U. 1519 – Death of Leonardo da Vinci. The invention of new machines changed the way people made goods. Terms to know about European history. Edmund Cartwright – power loom. The Power Loom. Also, as a bonus, I post a few highlights of my social media pages, so you can get a sample of what you'll see if you choose to follow me on those platforms. •1796 – Napoleon defeated Italy and took over a piece of it’s land. The power loom was a steam-powered, mechanically operated. - Maintain an even selvage. -Weave to within ½-1" of the top of the loom. The majority of businesses in the United States by 1832 were in the textile industry. The proposed project diminishes the value of the GREAT HILL CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREA for both humans and wildlife. 1871 - Dixons, the firm announced that it would stop using hand-loom weavers. Rise of the Factory System New machines put in factories located near power source: coal, iron, water. Thanks to the generous support of our PTA and the Arts and Science Council, we were fortunate to work with Victoria Sowers from Sandy Creek Weavers this fall. I reckon it will take a day to fit properly. They took the work of spinning and weaving out of the house. com, find free presentations research about Power Loom PPT. U•X•L Encyclopedia of U. 633 (2 March 1974). The remainder of the heat may be allowed to escape, or, for maximum engine efficiency, the steam may be condensed. The thing about anime is that its ability to entertain is not limited by demographics. Which country appears to be the most industrialized? The Industrial Revolution transformed economic systems. In December of 2013, there were already over 2 million Rainbow Looms sold 4. We can design them for your personal use or for giveaways at your next party. Process Paper My topic for this project is the invention of mills and how they changed the way products were manufactured in the America. - the loom for men, and the cards and hand-wheel for women and boys. Intro: Patterns of Industrialization.